Jennifer Diggens

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Information, Resources and Services And The Role Of Public Libraries For 55+ Generations

Information, Resources and Services and the Role of the Public Libraries for 55+ Generations – A Systematic Review of Literature

Jennifer Diggens – Master Student – IT43 Master of Information Technology (Library and information Science) Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland

ABSTRACT – The aim of this systematic review of literature is to provide evidence to show what information, resources and services are provided for the 55+ generations in the Public Library System. This systematic review of literature will also highlight the benefits of fostering wellbeing and life-long learning and support the role of public libraries in engaging the 55+ generations. In addition, it will provide discussion and recommendations and indicate the limitations of this project.

PURPOSE – Of the systematic review of literature is to find out the information, resources and services and the role of the public libraries for the 55+ generations. In addition to provide answers to questions that arose from this review of the literature.

DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – The research approach based on a review of literature was sourced from Queensland University of Technology Databases and Catalogue, Google and Google Scholar. Particular attention was paid to sourcing peer-reviewed articles. ‘Snowballing’ utilising the reference lists of journal articles also was used. This systematic review of literature will be presented as a narrative using meta-analysis.

RESULTS – Searching online sources identified 58 articles of which 11 articles were excluded subsequently, as they did not fit with the topic under investigation.

FINDINGS –The review presents findings which relate to the need for public libraries to provide information, resources and services to the 55+ generations.

ORIGINALITY/VALUE – To my knowledge, this is the first systematic review of literature on this topic. Therefore this project will begin the discussion on the issues of the role and benefits public libraries will have providing services and programs to engage the 55+ generations.

KEYWORDS – Baby Boomers, Older Adults, Older People, Public Libraries, Seniors and 55+ Generations.

INTRODUCTION

I undertook this review of the literature to answer the question: Are public libraries servicing adequately the needs of 55+ generations? The literature search was undertaken to identify the specific needs of this group, the interaction between this age cohort and the public libraries themselves; what each of the parties gain from their interaction and how the interaction can be improved (Hildreth, 2006; Joseph, 2006; Sloan, 2009; Sutton, 2009).

The 55+ generations are the largest age group in Australia today; they were born in a society that had political stability, economic growth and access to higher education. With the recent economic down turn, the importance of providing services for the 55+ generations is one of the major focuses for public libraries.

In addition, there is a need to engage 55+ generations in long-term learning as it has demonstrable benefits for the community and the public libraries and it also enriches their lives, which in some cases, can be very lonely and socially isolated (Butcher & Street, 2009; Williamson, Bannister & Sullivan, 2010).

RESEARCH QUESTION

The following question was developed from reading the literature and it helped guide the selection of materials for the systematic review of the literature:

• What is the future role of public libraries in providing for the information, resource and service needs and how will public libraries respond to the needs of the 55+ age groups?

CHARACTERISTICS OF 55+ GENERATIONS

The following is a description of the characteristics of the age groups that this journal article investigated.

BABY BOOMERS

Baby boomers, is the term that describes the cohort who were born between1946-1965. Due to post war migrations and Australian government policy which foster immigrations, the baby boomer generation is socially and ethnically diverse and they enjoy giving back to the community as thanks for what they have achieved. Baby boomers have high expectations from their public library. In general they are healthier and more technology savvy than previous generations (MacKenzie, n.d; Williamson, et al., 2006).

SENIOR/OLDER PEOPLE/OLDER ADULTS

Older people / adults or seniors are the terms used to describe the cohort who are 65 and over. Typical characteristics of the Seniors generations is a belief in working hard and helping others. Also, many seniors do not like to be a bother and as a whole will appreciate help and advice from others (Ahlvers, 2006).

For this project to make the description uniform, the cohorts will be combined under the heading of the 55+ generations.

SIGNIFICANCE

To my knowledge, this is the first systematic review of literature to explore the information, resources and services and the role of the public libraries and how they cater for the needs of the 55+ generations. The findings from this review will assist in raising awareness in librarians about the needs of this group and lead to further research in this area.

This review highlights the benefits that 55+ generations contribute to public libraries and the community (Bundy, 2005; Sloan, 2005). Additionally the systematic review of literature will show what guidelines and best practices can be used by public libraries to provide information, resources and services to the 55+ generations (Dobson, 2004; Joseph, 2006; Jones, 2006).

DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH

The research approach applied in this project is a critical review of the literature. The systematic review of literature will be done as a narrative using meta-analysis. Meta-analysis is the way researchers combine and summarise findings from many primary sources to produce one research study. The processes are:

• Find journal articles that cover the topic under investigation,
• Summarise the findings, and
• Combine all information into a critical review of the literature. (Creswell, 2012).

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The historical origins of the research methodology of reviewing literature to provide evidence based data started in the medical fields around 1904. While the systematic review of literature started in medicine other disciplines, for example education and psychology, soon followed. These disciplines helped to refine and improve the systematic review of literature methodologies and reporting (McKibbon, 2006).

Researchers use systematic review of literature usually as a precursor to further research investigations and sometimes in combination with other research methods because it has the following advantages:

• Systematic review of literature allows well-defined methodology, which helps in preventing bias
• Provides evidence that is robust and transferable and allows you to use variation in sources, which can also help in providing evidence
• Information professionals are increasingly using systematic reviews of literature methodologies because this method helps the profession to understand their own research base and identify strengths and gaps in the literature. Information professionals are well placed to have access to world knowledge and are key players in helping researchers to gather and analyze primary studies (Creswell, 2012; McKibbon, 2006).

When applied to Library and Information services the review of literature can help librarians in a number of ways, specifically:

• To implement and justify services and programs,
• To justify services that are not showing evidence of any benefits, and
• To build a bank of knowledge from which librarians can draw upon to aid decision making (McKibbon, 2006).

LIMITATIONS

Bias is one of the limitations of using systematic review of literature methodology in research. Bias can distort the findings in the research as it prevents the researcher from recognizing ‘truth’ because of distortions in the way data is reported (McKibbon, 2006).’

Another limitation of the systematic review of literature methodology is heterogeneity, which is the inability to compare studies. One way to reduce the influence of heterogeneity in a systematic review of literature is to have very strict inclusion and exclusion criteria (Vet, Verhagen, Logghe & Ostelo, 2005).

To address these limitations, several evaluation criteria were established and is described in the following section.

EVALUATION CRITERIA

The evaluation criteria provided guidelines for inclusion or exclusion of articles for the systematic review. The guidelines included the following:

• Peer review and non-peer reviewed journals were used. They had to be on the topic and published between the years 2003-2013. The journal articles selected were studies and research/non research papers.
• Conference papers that met the topic under investigation and were between years 2003-2013. The conference papers provide up to the minute research which may not been published in other journals.
• Google was used to provide a broad sweep of articles which may not have occurred in the traditional databases, and
• Google Scholar articles were selected to find articles that were not found in the databases used. These articles had to be on the topic and published between the years 2003-2013.

The guidelines for the systematic review of literature excluded:

• Articles in magazines, newsletters, pamphlets and technology documents
• Articles that were excluded during my search on Google Scholar are guidelines and
• Material published before 2003 and book reviews.

The following procedure was undertaken to collect the journal articles for this review of literature. Searching online databases, Google, Google Scholar and snowballing – using the reference lists at the back of journal articles – was also utilised. Using these procedures 55 articles was identified. After reading each article selected after the primary search and using the evaluation criteria, 11 articles were excluded.

There were a number of methodologies used by articles that were included in this systematic review of literature, including:
• Narrative was the most common methodology. This is used by researchers to learn about personal experience and can be affected by interviewing individuals or by using documents and archival material.
• A methodology which occurred in one or two instances was a cross-sectional survey. Researchers use this method when they want to concentrate on one group and find out what they want and need.
• One of the articles used an instrumental case study methodology. It is when researchers need to talk about one particular issue that instrumental case study is used. The authors in this study also used constructivist design to understand views, values, beliefs, feelings and assumptions of the individuals who were part of the instrumental case study.
• In two articles, ethnographic methodology was used. Ethnographic methodology is a qualitative procedure that studies the findings by using themes. Researchers undertake focus groups and interview participants in their own environment. One of the articles also used a constructivist framework. Constructivist believe that researchers need interaction with participants to find out their needs by holding focus groups.
• One of the articles applied an interpretivist/constructivist research framework methodology. This is one of the key interpretivist paradigms (Creswell, 2012; Fraenkel, Wallen & Hyun, 2012; Williamson, 2002).

In strictly applying these criteria, there were a relatively small number of articles which could be included. However, the articles which remained indicted an international interest in the topic.

The articles that were selected were mostly from English-speaking countries such as Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand and United States. However I did find articles from countries that English was a second language such as Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia and Taiwan. The Taiwan article was in Chinese but at the back of the document they had English translation. The countries that the systematic reviews of literature articles come from are outlined in the following table:

The articles that were selected range from 2004 to 2013. The most important time for articles on information about 55+ generations was 2009. The reason for this is that in 2009 there were two important conferences on the role of public libraries for the 55+ generations. After that literature on the 55+ generations became less important.

The dates that the systematic reviews of literature articles covered are outlined in the following table:

BACKGROUND

Public libraries provide an important role to the 55+ generations and those public libraries need to work towards providing them with information, resources and services. (Sloan, 2009). With economic down turn, 55+ generations will have a great impact on public libraries and with this in mind, public libraries need to plan information, resources and services which cater for these needs.

Many of the 55+ generations are retirees and the economic downturn has affected their income and ability to pay for services. Libraries have a place as the social centre of a community and can be well placed to provide a comfortable and welcoming environment for the 55+ generations. The 55+ generations have many subgroups. Identified in this review are those of ethnic origin; those who are carers of elderly parents and young grandchildren; those who are physically disabled and those known as “grey nomads” Additionally the 55+ generations is located in many rural and regional centres (Jones, 2005; Williamson, et.al, 2010).

Public libraries have access to a number of guidelines and best practice statements to help them provide for the 55+ generations. Guidelines and best practice statements have a number of benefits for staff to help them to find ideas; information resources and core services; what other libraries are doing and what partnerships are used by their public libraries (Bundy, 2005; Sloan, 2009).

The guidelines and best practice statements are available online:

• State Library of NSW. Active, Engaged, Value, Older People & NSW Public Library. (Joseph, 2006)
• Friends of Libraries Australia. Community Critical: Australian Public Libraries (FOLA, 2005).

Reading the literature the following side issues had been recognised which will not be discussed at this time. The issues are:

• Consequences for public libraries when the expertise and experience of the 55+ generations staff retire
• How to help provide computer training for 55+ generations and
• Funding for public libraries to provide information, resources and services for the 55+ generations.

The following are the findings that come out of the systematic review of literature.

FINDINGS

ROLE OF LIBRARIES FOR THE 55+ GENERATIONS

As a start point, the literature indicates that information, resources and services need to be easily accessible and available free or at minimal cost and reflect socially and culturally supported of the clientele. Additionally, the libraries need to be friendly and comfortable place. Public libraries need to engage 55+ generations by organisation surveys and focus groups to help the variety of clientele, which included English speakers; non – English speakers and grey nomads. This review has found that public libraries have a role in providing the information, resource and service needs of the 55+ Generation.

INFORMATION

Public libraries role in supporting the information needs of the 55+ generations will need to work towards providing information on the following:

• Health and wellbeing information in plain English and other multicultural languages
• Information for 55+ generations carers who are looking after 55+ loved ones at home and
• Provide information from TAFE and Third Age University to continue 55+ generations life-long learning.
• Information in different languages for ethnic public libraries members
• Information on legal matters that is in plain English
• Information on retirement
• Information on ageing
• Information on being a grandparent
• Provide access to information on genealogical
• Local history
• Council information and Community information (Bundy, 2005; Cavanagh & Robbins, 2012; Decker, 2010; Dobson, 2004; Fell, 2009; Friends of Libraries Australia, 2005; Jones, 2009; Joseph, 2009; Joseph, 2006; Juznic, et al., 2006; Piper, Palmer & Xie, 2009; Williamson, 2009; Worley, 2009; Xie & Jaeger, 2008).

There are many in the 55+ generations whose need more specific information. Specifically these are the housebound and those in nursing homes and non-English speakers. They need the following:

• What collections are available for them to use and
• To be provided with information multicultural languages on law, health and government information and have someone to ensure they understand the information (Collect & Gorden, 2009; Worley, 2009).

The following are resources that public libraries can provide to 55+ generations.

RESOURCES

The public libraries need to provide the necessary resources to meet the needs of the English and non-English 55+ generations. The way to do this is to build 55+ collections that serve their needs and can be located in their social hub and be updated on a regularly basis. These resources will provide them with lifelong learning and a better quality of life (Ahlvers, 2006; Bundy, 2005; Collett & Gorden, 2009; Friends of Libraries Australia, 2005; Jones, 2005; Joseph, 2006; Mustey, 2009; Prasad, 2009; Rowden, 2009; Williamson el at., 2006; Williamson, Bannister and Sullivan, 2013),

The resources that the 55+ generations need are:

• Up to date large print books
• Talking Books
• Provide the last best sellers
• Magazines
• Videos.
• MP3s on compact discs
• Ebooks
• Books in Braille and
• Directories providing services that are in the local community
• Provide resources for the volunteers who provide storytelling in nursing homes (Ahlvers, 2006; Bundy, 2005; Collett & Gorden, 2009; Friends of Libraries Australia, 2005; Jones, 2005; Joseph, 2006; Mustey, 2009; Prasad, 2009; Rowden, 2009; Williamson el at., 2006; Williamson, Bannister and Sullivan, 2010).

Sloan (2009) suggests that public libraries need to work towards providing 55+ generations with their own website to provide information, for example upcoming events. The cost of Internet too many of 55+ generations is beyond their means. Public libraries need to provide free wireless Internet access to allow this cohort to access online information (Joseph, 2006).

To cater for the ethnic members of the library community, public libraries need to provide:

• Books
• Talking books
• Audio books
• Newspapers and
• Magazines (Hall, 2009; Worley, 2009).

There is a need for public libraries to work toward providing accessibility devices that will help 55+ generations to continue to learn and read in their local public libraries. Such devices include “In Focus projectors”, “Adapt a Lap”, Audio-Read.

Also Public libraries have to think about access to libraries to considerate for those who have mobility problems e.g. wheeler chairs (Decker, 2010; Joseph, 2009; Long, 2005; Piper, Palmer & Xie, 2009; Rowden, 2009; Wilson, 2009).

Public libraries need to ensure more variety of books for 55+ generations’ men. Goucher (2009) and Rajkovic (2005) suggest the topics include books from the adventure genre, agriculture, farming, small business and car manuals

Another group within the 55+ generation is the grey nomads who travel independently for an extended period within Australia. Public libraries can cater for this group by encouraging them to come and use the resources of the library. Such resources could include:

• Newspapers
• Computers.
• Free access to internet
• Tourist information
• Reciprocal borrowing
• Provide a lending collection to the 55+ grey nomad’s paperbacks (Fell, 2009; Joseph, 2006).

The following are services that public libraries can provide to 55+ generations.

SERVICES

Public libraries need to provide services for the 55+ generations to engage them in their local public library,

Computer training can be the best things for librarians and the 55+ generations. Further, it demonstrates the benefits of the public libraries providing information, resources and services (Hoffman-Goetz, Friedman, Celestine, 2006; Kelly& Hibner, 2009; Juznic et al, 2006; Kleiman, 2009; Ninkov and Vuksan 2011; Ruthven, 2010; Xie & Bugg, 2009; Xie & Jaeger, 2008).

Many of the 55+ gen are grandparents who have a carer role. A program that public libraries can provide is using 55+ generations to help children in the libraries. This program uses 55+ generations as monitors to help children using computers, provide discussion on topics and reading to young children (Hall, 2009; Lee & Chang, 2011; Long, 2005; Prasad, 2009).

A service that public libraries can work towards is to use 55+ generations as volunteer to help housebound and nursing home residents by providing the following services:

• For those who can no longer read or hold a book, by using them as storytellers to read to the 55+ generations residents and
• Deliver books to the housebound (Bourke, 2009; Butcher & Street, 2009; Rajkovic, 2005; Mustey, 2009; Siew, 2007; Prasad, 2009; Sloan, 2009; Williamson el at, 2005; Williamson el at, 2006).

To provide 55+ generations with their own reader advisory librarian would be great service. Reader advisory librarian will have knowledge and patience with 55+ generations who have disabilities, for example hearing lost.

They can .provide summer reading programs for the 55+ generations, with which they can include housebound users using Skype. (Ahlvers, 2006; Forsyth, 2009; Joseph, 2009; Jones, 2005)

They can also help the 55+ generations to use technologies that they might need the large print collection and talking books. In addition, readers’ advisors can also provide a service for the housebound using the Internet. 55+ generations can ring, email or texting or twitter their request and enquiries to the readers’ advisors who then collect the information and give it to the housebound librarian. They can also reply to the client and this will help the housebound 55+ generations not feel so isolated (Ahlvers, 2006; Forsyth, 2009; Jones, 2005; Joseph, 2009).

Public libraries could organise 55+ generations’ events and clubs that evolve 55+ generations English and non-English speaking 55+ generations and 55+ generation men. Examples of events that could be provided by public libraries are:

• Grandparents Day so they can come into the library with their grandchildren
• Encourage nursing homes to visit their local Public libraries and make it a fun day for the 55+ generations’ residents.
• Senior day, which could be held weekly or monthly
• Book clubs
• Travel clubs
• Current affairs
• Gaming clubs
• Craft clubs
• Hold concerts in the library
• Tea and talk with Authors
• 10; Have a film or video afternoon
• Genealogy course
• Arts education that cater for the needs of 55+ generations (Ahlvers, 2006; Butcher & Street, 2009; Joseph, 2006; Kleiman, 2009; Luyt & Swee, 2013; McDonough, 2013; Prasad, 2009; Rajkovic, 2009; Sloan. 2009).

Looking at libraries overseas, in the United States of America, a number of libraries provided services to the 55+ generations.

For instance,

• Boston Public Library provides a program called “How can I afford retirement – investor education at Boston Public Library”. 55+ generations’ volunteers run this program and the sessions are free. The sessions discuss topics that the participants want to talk about and
• Newton Free Library provides a service called “Discovering what’s next – revitalizing retirement” which is run and founded by a library volunteer. Program helps 55+ generations to manage the next stage in their life. To allow 55+ generations to seek volunteering opportunities or share their knowledge and experiences with other 55+ generations. (Fell, 2009)

55+ generations who came from ethnic background start to speak their own languages, as they get older though they can speak English. Public libraries should work towards providing services that will meet the needs of 55+ generations’ ethnic groups (Cavanagh and Robbins, 2012; Hall, 2009; Joseph, 2006; Piper, Palmer & Xie, 2009; Rajkovic, 2005; Worley, 2009).

Public libraries need to work towards providing a social and cultural role for the 55+ generations and this can be done by providing a social hub. To utilise the social and cultural importance and each library and it will be different depending on their clientele. 55+ generation social hub will allow separate areas to accommodate the needs of English speaking men and women as well as multicultural speakers. The benefits for 55+ generations to have a social hub in their public libraries include

• Help the reading habits of ethnic 55+ generations by providing culturally appropriate areas for women to be able to read without being afraid.
• Stop 55+ generations to be isolated from the community.
• To stimulate 55+ generations to come together in their public libraries
• To stimulate 55+ generations to continue to their long- term learning after retirement and
• Provide a coffee shop for 55+ generations can meet other 55+ generations.(Aldrich, 2009; Cavanagh and Robbins, 2010; Decker, 2010; Joseph, 2009; Joseph, 2006; Luyt & Ho Swee, 2011; Juznic et al, 2006; MacKenzie et al., n.d; Rajkovic, 2005; Sloan, 2009; Williamson, 2009; Williamson et al., 2005; Williamson, Bannister & Sullivan, 2010; Williamson et el, 2006; Williamson, 2009; Xie and Jaeger, 2008).

Public libraries could work towards organising partnerships with ethnic community, communities that cater for seniors’ organisations for example:

• Greek community centres
• Arabic Community centres,
• Croatian centres
• Third Age University and
• Organize partnerships with other libraries to provide services for the 55+ generations (Aldrich, 2009; Decker, 2010; Hall, 2009; MacKenzie et al.; Piper, Palmer & Xie, 2009; Prasad, 2009; Rajkovic, 2005; Williamson et al., 2006; Williamson, 2009; Worley, 2009).

The following outlines the limitations to this project.

LIMITATIONS

This project is systematic review of literature therefore it is a preliminary investigation. The project is part of the assignment for INN690 Minor Project and this placed time constraints on the completion of the project. The researcher was new at doing systematic review of literature, which could affect the findings. This project was conducted by one person, which could allow bias to come into the findings. (REW, 2010)

Some of the journal articles use narrative mythology, which can also limit the results or distort the information under study. In addition, the information gathered in a narrative methodology needed the research to be validated to ensure the findings were accurate otherwise the findings can be infected by bias. Other journal articles use survey research design, which is a good way to find out the needs of 55+ generations. (Creswell, 2012; Fraenkel, Wallen & Hyun, 2012; Williamson, 2002).

However, the researchers only used the completed surveys, which in some cases was 25% of the 55+ generations’ members of their library. This could cause the library members’ needs to be missed. In addition, survey research could have problems with validity of the results because some of the individuals can respond differently from what they really feel (Creswell, 2012; Fraenkel, Wallen & Hyun, 2012; Williamson, 2002).

DISCUSSION

The findings arising from the literature really highlighted the role of public libraries as providers of information, resources and services to the 55+ generations. It also shows the benefits for public libraries to engage with this large cohort in so many ways such as extending their resources and services to the housebound, carers, grey nomads and nursing homes.

This systematic review of literature only provides the smallest glimpse of what information, resources, and services are provided by public libraries. The findings did follow the research questions but was limited to the number of articles found on the topic

The findings did highlight the importance of the Public Libraries system to the 55+ generations during the global economic crisis to provide information, resources, and services to this large age group (Sutton, 2009). They need to work towards making the public libraries friendlier and more caring of the needs of the 55+ generations in other words make it a social hub that caters for different cultural beliefs and customs. It will make public libraries more friendly and caring for 55+ generations and provide them with information, resources and services and will encourage 55+ generations who are disabled to use the library. In addition: it will help the multicultural women and men to enjoy the library because the social hub would accommodate their cultural beliefs.

The findings highlighted the role of 55+ generations have as volunteers in providing services to the 55+ generations. The 55+ generations enjoy using their knowledge and experience in providing computers training, storytelling in nursing homes and art glasses. The benefit of this for public libraries is to enable them to provide more services for 55+ generations. The staffs have time to provide help to 55+ generations to find information in the library. In addition, they can expand their services to the housebound and the nursing homes in their local area. (Kelly & Hibner, 2005)

The use of partnerships with other community services that cater for seniors is a good way for public libraries to provide services and resources to the 55+ generations. Reading the literature the partnerships that were written about regularly were ethnic communities’ centres, University of the Third Age, arts and cultural organisations and partnerships with other libraries to provide information, resources and services to the 55+ generations. (Aldrich, 2009; Decker, 2010; Hall, 2009; Juznic et al, 2006; MacKenzie et al, n.d; Piper, Palmer & Xie, 2009; Prasad, 2009; Williamson et al., 2006; Worley, 2009; Rajkovic, 2005; Williamson, 2009).

The review of literature also highlighted the need for more information, resources and services for the 55+ generations in the rural areas. Public libraries need to work towards providing more large print books especially catering to the 55+ generations’ men, talking books and computer training. The 55+ generations in rural areas also need up to date information about health, law, farming, agricultural.
Other areas that public libraries should work towards providing 55+ generations are the resources that will help them to continue their long-term learning for examples Playaway, Daisy and Audio-Reader.

In addition, the review of literature identified some significant subgroups These being 55+ generations careers who look after 55+ generations loved ones at home, 55+ generations grey nomads and 55+ generations multicultural speakers.

The results also showed the benefits of 55+ generations who are grandparents who bring their grandchildren into their local public library and how they help other children to appreciate libraries and to get involved in discussions about any topic or reading to the young ones. This helps the 55+ generations and the children to understand each other.

The findings of this review highlight that 55+ generations are one of the largest groups and the impact it will have on the public libraries and the need to provide the right information, resources and services to cover their needs.

The findings also highlighted but was not really discussed in this review of literature was the availability of a number of guidelines that could help public libraries provide the necessary information, resources and services for the 55+ generations.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. The libraries need to recognise that the 55+ gen. has needs and requirements specific to them.
2. Libraries need to find the information resources and services that their own local community requires. To do this they need mechanisms or strategies to find this information.
3. The libraries may need support to implement the information resources and services for the 55+ generations.
4. Libraries need to look for best practice where these have been in place to cater for the 55+ generations’ and model and adapt to suit their own clientele.
5. Public libraries need to work towards providing the necessary information that was highlighted in this review of literature.
6. Public Libraries to work towards providing the resources needed for 55+ generations that was highlighted in this review of literature.
7. To ensure that public libraries provided the services that were mentioned in this review of literature
8. Public libraries need to work to towards providing a social hub for 55+ generations. The needs of 55+ generations are different to other cohorts. Providing them with their own space will accommodate the needs of English and non-English speaking men and women.
9. To extend to the housebound and those included in nursing homes. This will help the 55+ generations in nursing homes to feel less isolated in the community.
10. Public libraries to work towards providing volunteer opportunities for 55+ generations in their library. Providing volunteer opportunities for 55+ generations will benefit the public library, 55+ generations, and the community.

AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

Two areas that were not covered in this review of literature are 55+ generations’ library staff and funding for public libraries. However, they were mentioned in articles that were selected for this review of literature, as was the impact they will have on public libraries. These two particular aspects warrant further discussion and further research needs to be undertaken.

CONCLUSIONS

This systematic review of literature is only the start of finding out what information, resources and services that public libraries can provide for the 55+ generations in their community. The findings of this study are limited due to the number of articles found on this topic. However, it will provide future researchers with a base to begin their research. There is a need for further research into this topic.

The 55+ generations is a large cohort and it is important for public libraries to work towards providing them with information, resources and services by, in part, ensuring that public libraries are friendly and caring environments for 55+ generations.

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Joseph, M. (2006). Active Engaged Older People and NSW Public Libraries. Australasian Public Libraries & Information Services, 19 (3), 113-117. Retrieved from Informit
http://search.informit.com.au.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/fullText;dn=200610389;res=APAFT

Joseph, M. (2009). Public library strategies for the over 50s: everything old is new again – or is it? Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services, 22 (3) 115-119. Retrieved form ProQuest
http://search.proquest.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/docview/214110336/fulltextPDF/140EC7281945C8CFDE6/1?accountid=13380

Juznic, F., Blazic, M. Mercury, F., Plestenjak, B. and Majcenovic, D. (2006) Who says that old dogs cannot learn new tricks? New Library Work 107 (1226/1337) 332-345.
doi: 10.1108/03074800610677308

Lee, P. Y. and Chang, S. J. L. (2011). Elderly participation in public library voluntary services: a case study of Taipei public library. Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences, 49 (1) 3 -38. Retrieved from Directory of Open Access Journals
http://joemls.dils.tku.edu.tw/fulltext/49/49-1/3-38.pdf

Long, S. A. (2005). What’s new in libraries: serving the “Boomer” generation and beyond. New Library World 106 (1214/1215) 378-380. doi: 10.1108/03074800510608684

Luyt, B, and Ho Swee, A. (2011). Reading, the library, and the elderly: a Singapore case study. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 43 (4) 204-212. doi: 10.1177/0961000611418813

MacKenzie, H., Haley-Mancini, S., Murray, E., Poplawski, A., & Slemin, C. (n.d.). Service to older adults: a plan for Halifax public libraries 2007-2008. Retrieved from Google
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McKibbon, K. A. (2006). Systematic Reviews and Librarians. Library Trend, 55 (1), 202-215. Retrieved from ProQuest http://search.proquest.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/docview/220455692/fulltextPDF/13FBD9B3BF619625557/1?accountid=13380

Piper, D., Palmer, S. and Xie, B. (2009). Services to older adults: preliminary findings from three Maryland public libraries. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 50 (2) 109-118. Retrieved from ProQuest
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Prasad, P. (2009). Reference services to senior groups in the San Antonio Public Library, Reference Librarian, 50 (1) 99-108. doi: 10.1080/02763870802546456

Rajkovic, M. (2005). Services to the over 65s in New South Wales public Libraries. Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services, 18 (1) 13-19. Retrieved from Informit
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Sloan, M. (2009). Developing a Good Practice Guide on Library Services for Older People. Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services. 22 (2), 48-57. Retrieved from Informit
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Williamson, K., Bannitser, M., Makin, L., Johanson, G., Schauder, D, and Sullivan, J. (2006).
‘Wanting it now’: baby boomers and the public library of the future. Australian Library Journal, 55 (1) 54-72. doi: 10.1080/00049670.2006.10721811

Williamson, K., Bannister, M. & Sullivan, J. (2010). “The crossover generation: baby boomers and the role of the public library”. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 42 (3), 179-190. doi: 10.1177/0961000610368917

Worley, R. (2009). Partnerships to support CALD older adults in Wollongong. In: Bundy, A (eds.) Next chapters: public libraries for older adults in Australia and New Zealand, (pp. 44-50) Sydney 1-2 May 2009, conference proceedings.

Xie, B. and Jaeger, P. T. (2008). Computer training programs for older adults at the public library. Public Libraries, 47 (5) 52-58. Retrieved from ProQuest
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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF LITERATURE
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Goucher, L. (2009). Books for blokes and beyond: the next chapter. Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services, 22 (2) 71-76. Retrieved from ProQuest
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Hall, A. (2009). Public library resources and programs form Mediterranean languages groups in Australia. Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services, 22 (4) 157-163. Retrieved from ProQuest http://search.proquest.com/docview/214108909?accountid=13380

Hoffman-Goetz, L. Friedman, D. and Celestine, A. (2006). Evaluation of a public library workshop: teaching older adults how to search the internet for reliable cancer information. Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet, 10 (3) 29-43. doi: 10.1300/J381v10n03_03

Jones, C. (2006). Services to the housebound in Adelaide’s metropolitan and regional public libraries: current practices and future needs. Australian Library Journal, 55 (1) 30-47. Retrieved from Informit
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Jones, C. (2009). The impact of an ageing population on coastal public libraries in New Wales. In: Bundy, A (eds.) Next chapters: public libraries for older adults in Australia and New Zealand, (pp. 44-50) Sydney 1-2 May 2009, conference proceedings.

Joseph, M. (2006). Active engaged older people and NSW public libraries. Australasian Public Libraries & Information Services, 19 (3), 113-117. Retrieved from Informit
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Joseph, M. (2009). Public library strategies for the over 50s: everything old is new again – or is it? Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services, 22 (3) 115-119. Retrieved form ProQuest
http://search.proquest.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/docview/214110336/fulltextPDF/140EC7281945C8CFDE6/1?accountid=13380

Juznic, F., Blazic, M. Mercury, F., Plestenjak, B. and Majcenovic, D. (2006) Who says that old dogs cannot learn new tricks? New Library Work 107 (1226/1337) 332-345.
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Kleiman, A. (2009). Designing senior spaces for baby boomers, older adults and their families: the old bridge New Jersey public library model. In Bundy, A. L. Next chapters: public libraries for older adults in Australia and New Zealand Conference (10-13), Sydney 1-2 May.

Lee, P. Y. and Chang, S. J. L. (2011). Elderly participation in public library voluntary services: a case study of Taipei public library. Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences, 49 (1) 3 -38. Retrieved from Directory of Open Access Journals
http://joemls.dils.tku.edu.tw/fulltext/49/49-1/3-38.pdf

Long, S. A. (2005). What’s new in libraries: serving the “Boomer” generation and beyond. New Library World 106 (1214/1215) 378-380. doi: 10.1108/03074800510608684

Luyt, B, and Ho Swee, A. (2011). Reading, the library, and the elderly: a Singapore case study. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 43 (4) 204-212. doi: 10.1177/0961000611418813

McDonough, S. K. (2013). Lifetime arts: delivering arts education programs for today’s older adults. Public Libraries, 52 (3) 29-31-35. Retrieved from ProQuest
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MacKenzie, H., Haley-Mancini, S., Murray, E., Poplawski, A., & Slemin, C. (n.d.). Service to older adults: a plan for Halifax public libraries 2007-2008. Retrieved from
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Piper, D., Palmer, S. and Xie, B. (2009). Services to older adults: preliminary findings from three Maryland public libraries. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 50 (2) 109-118. Retrieved from ProQuest
http://search.proquest.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/docview/203231491/fulltextPDF/140ED30D0D116162C6F/1?accountid=13380

Prasad, P. (2009). Reference services to senior groups in the San Antonio Public Library, Reference Librarian, 50 (1) 99-108. doi: 10.1080/02763870802546456

Rajkovic, M. (2005). Services to the over 65s in New South Wales public Libraries. Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services, 18 (1) 13-19. Retrieved from Informit
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Sloan, M. (2009). Developing a good practice guide on library services for older people. Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services, 22 (2), 48-57. Retrieved from Informit
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Williamson, K, (2009). Creating the new village green: the impact of the retirement of the baby boomers on the public library. Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services, 22 (2) 83-88. Retrieved from Informit
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Williamson, K., Bannitser, M., Makin, L., Johanson, G., Schauder, D. and Sullivan, J. (2009). “When I’m 64’: the public library after the retirement of the baby boomers. In 2nd Research Applications in Information and Library Studies Seminar (RAILS), (pp. 53-66). Canberra, ACT

Williamson, K., Bannitser, M., Makin, L., Johanson, G., Schauder, D, and Sullivan, J. (2006).
‘Wanting it now’: baby boomers and the public library of the future. Australian Library Journal, 55 (1) 54-72. doi: 10.1080/00049670.2006.10721811
Williamson, K., Bannister, M. & Sullivan, J. (2010). “The crossover generation: baby boomers and the role of the public library”. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 42 (3), 179-190. doi: 10.1177/0961000610368917

Wilson, G. (2009). Audiocassettes: who needs them? New audio technologies and older adults. In: Bundy, A (eds.) Next chapters: public libraries for older adults in Australia and New Zealand, (pp. 114-120) Sydney 1-2 May 2009, conference proceedings

Worley, R. (2009). Partnerships to support CALD older adults in Wollongong. In: Bundy, A (eds.) Next chapters: public libraries for older adults in Australia and New Zealand, (pp. 44-50) Sydney 1-2 May 2009, conference proceedings.

Xie, B. and Jaeger, P. T. (2008). Computer training programs for older adults at the public library. Public Libraries, 47 (5) 52-58. Retrieved from ProQuest
http://search.proquest.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/docview/217466377/fulltextPDF/140ED39A4B06375ECA7/1?accountid=13380


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